The lands to be irrigated from water stored in the Angostura Reservoir are situated on the lover of two terraces along the southeast side of the Cheyenne River in northeastern Fall River County and on the terrace known as Harrison Plat in southeastern Custer County, S. Dak. The terrace deposits are composed of relatively permeable sands and gravels that rest on a shale bedrock platform. The terrace surfaces are mantled in part by slope wash derived from higher shale slopes and by wind-blown sand.
Ground water occurs under water-table conditions in the river alluvium and in terraces above the river. Although the zone of saturation in the terrace deposits is 6enerally thin, it is essentially continuous in the area southeast of the river, and the water issues as springs in the terrace faces along the inner valley of the river and along the valleys of tributary streams cuttin6 back into the terraces. A zone of saturation is present only in part of the Harrison Plat area, and it extends to the terrace face only along Cottonwood Creek. Wells in the unconsolidated mantle rock supply water for domestic and stock purposes, but yields are small. Abundant supplies of artesian water are available at depths ranging up to 3,000 feet but are not now utilized except at the extreme western end of the area where the bedrock aquifer is close below the surface.
The effect of applying irrigation water on the terrace lands will depend on the character of the underlying material and on the measures taken to forestall waterlogging and other undesirable effects. Terrace areas that are mantled by slope wash will be especially susceptible to waterlogging, as will valley-bottom areas mantled by colluvium that are adjacent to irrigated terracea. Periodic measurements of water levels in observation wells will give warning of potential waterlogging in time to permit taking preventive measures.
Analyses of samples of both ground water and surface water indicate a high mineral content. In general, samples from the Cheyenne River are higher in total dissolved solids and lower in percent sodium than the ground water.
Additional publication details
USGS Numbered Series
Geology and ground-water hydrology of the Angostura irrigation project, South Dakota, with a section on the mineral quality of the waters