Collaborative research between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Landscape Ecology Branch, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began in 1999 to relate land use, geology, and other geographic variables to water quality and aquatic ecology in small streams of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Results of the study will include landscape-indicator models (see inset) for stream ecological condition and for concentrations of pesticides and nutrients in ground water discharging to small streams. A base network of 174 small (typically first-order) streams was designed across a gradient of hydrogeologic and land-use settings. Additional sites were selected to represent natural watershed conditions and to relate results from the base network to downstream conditions and seasonal hydrologic variability. Benthic-community and habitat assessments were conducted at each stream; water samples from all streams were analyzed for selected pesticides, pesticide metabolites, nutrients, and major ions.