USGS Zebra Mussel Monitoring Program for north Texas

Fact Sheet 2012-3077
Prepared in cooperation with North Texas Municipal Water District, Dallas Water Utilities, Greater Texoma Utility Authority, and City of Sherman Water Utilities
By:  and 



The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Zebra Mussel Monitoring Program for north Texas provides early detection and monitoring of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) by using a holistic suite of detection methods. The program is designed to assess zebra mussel occurrence, distribution, and densities in north Texas waters by using four approaches: (1) SCUBA diving, (2) water-sample collection with plankton tow nets (followed by laboratory analyses), (3) artificial substrates, and (4) water-quality sampling. Data collected during this type of monitoring can assist rapid response efforts and can be used to quantify the economic and ecological effects of zebra mussels in the north Texas area. Monitoring under this program began in April 2010. The presence of large zebra mussel populations often causes undesirable economic and ecological effects, including damage to water-processing infrastructure and hydroelectric powerplants (with an estimated 10-year cost of $3.1 billion), displacement of native mussels, increases in concentrations of certain species of cyanobacteria, and increases in concentrations of geosmin (an organic compound that results in taste and odor issues in water). Since no large-scale, environmentally safe eradication method has been developed for zebra mussels, it is difficult to remove established populations. Broad physicochemical adaptability, prolific reproductive capacity, and rapid dispersal methods have enabled zebra mussels, within a period of about 20 years, to establish populations under differing environmental conditions across much of the eastern part of the United States. In Texas, the presence of zebra mussels was first confirmed in April 2009 in Lake Texoma in the Red River Basin along the Texas-Oklahoma border. They were most likely introduced into Lake Texoma through overland transport from an infested water body. Since then, the presence of zebra mussels has been reported in both the Red River and Washita River arms of Lake Texoma, in Sister Grove Creek, and in Ray Roberts Lake. Water managers tasked with supplying the 6.6 million residents of the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area must ensure that the area receives a continuous supply of water that meets both the needs of the current (2012) and the projected (doubling in number by 2050) populations. This metropolitan area depends on surface water captured in area reservoirs, including those in the Trinity River Basin, for the primary source of drinking water. The presence of an established zebra mussel population in a reservoir in the Trinity River Basin could result in increased operations and maintenance costs for water resource managers and could potentially serve as a source population leading to further expansion of this aquatic nuisance species.

Study Area

Publication type Report
Publication Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Title USGS Zebra Mussel Monitoring Program for north Texas
Series title Fact Sheet
Series number 2012-3077
DOI 10.3133/fs20123077
Year Published 2012
Language English
Publisher U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location Reston, VA
Contributing office(s) Texas Water Science Center
Description 6 p.
Country United States
State Oklahoma County, Texas County
Other Geospatial Lake Texoma, Red River
Datum North American Datum of 1983
Projection Universal Transverse Mercator, Zone 14
Scale 24000
Online Only (Y/N) N
Additional Online Files (Y/N) N
Google Analytic Metrics Metrics page
Additional publication details