Manganese: it turns iron into steel (and does so much more)

Fact Sheet 2014-3087
USGS Mineral Resources Program



Manganese is a common ferrous metal with atomic weight of 25 and the chemical symbol Mn. It constitutes roughly 0.1 percent of the Earth’s crust, making it the 12th most abundant element. Its early uses were limited largely to pigments and oxidants in chemical processes and experiments, but the significance of manganese to human societies exploded with the development of modern steelmaking technology in the 1860s. U.S consumption of manganese is about 500,000 metric tons each year, predominantly by the steel industry. Because manganese is essential and irreplaceable in steelmaking and its global mining industry is dominated by just a few nations, it is considered one of the most critical mineral commodities for the United States.
Publication type Report
Publication Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Title Manganese: it turns iron into steel (and does so much more)
Series title Fact Sheet
Series number 2014-3087
DOI 10.3133/fs20143087
Year Published 2014
Language English
Publisher U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location Reston, VA
Contributing office(s) Eastern Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center
Description 2 p.
Online Only (Y/N) Y
Google Analytic Metrics Metrics page
Additional publication details