Despite their seeming permanence, volcanoes are prone to catastrophic collapse that can affect vast areas in a matter of minutes. Large collapses begin as gigantic landslides that quickly transform to debris avalanches—chaotically tumbling masses of rock debris that can sweep downslope at extremely high velocities, inundating areas far beyond the volcano. Rapid burial by the debris avalanches themselves, associated eruptions and lahars (volcanic mudflows), and inundation by tsunamis triggered when avalanches impact bodies of water can all cause widespread devastation to people and property.
Siebert, L., Reid, M.E., Vallance, J.W., and Pierson, T.C., 2019, When volcanoes fall down—Catastrophic collapse and debris avalanches (ver. 1.2, August 2019): U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2019-3023, 6 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20193023.
ISSN: 2327-6932 (online)
Additional publication details
|Publication Subtype||USGS Numbered Series|
|Title||When volcanoes fall down—Catastrophic collapse and debris avalanches|
|Series title||Fact Sheet|
|Edition||Version 1.2: August 2019; Version 1.1: June 2019|
|Publisher||U.S. Geological Survey|
|Publisher location||Reston, VA|
|Contributing office(s)||Volcano Science Center|