The American shad, an anadromous species, is the largest member of the herring family (Clupeidae) and is native to North America (Talbot and Sykes 1958; Hildebrand 1963; Walburg and Nichols 1967).
Historically, the commercial fishery for American shad on the Atlantic coast was widespread and intense; in 1896 the estimated catch was 22.7 million kg (50 million lb). By 1960, however, the estimated catch had dropped to slightly more than 3.6 million kg (8 million lb), according to Walburg and Nichols (1967). Pollution, overfishing, and dams constructed across streams that prevent shad from reaching their spawning grounds have caused partial or total depletion of stocks (Hildebrand 1963). Several programs aimed at restoring American shad to their former range have been initiated by Federal and State agencies.
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Federal Government Series
Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: American shad