U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) hydrologists and ecologist are conducting studies to quantify vegetative flow resistance in order to improve numerical models of surface-water flow in the Florida Everglades. Water-surface slope is perhaps the most difficult of the flow resistance parameters to measure in the Everglades due to the very low gradients of the topography and flow. In an effort to measure these very small slopes, a unique pipe manometer was developed for the local measurement of water-surface slopes on the order of 1 centimeter per kilometer (cm/km).
According to theory, a very precise measurement of centerline velocity obtained inside the pipe manometer should serve as a unique proxy for water-surface slope in the direction of the pipe axis. In order to confirm this theoretical relationship and calibrate the pipe manometer, water-surface elevation and pipe centerline velocity data were simultaneously measured in a set of experiments carried out in the tilting flume at the USGS Hydraulic Laboratory Facility at Stennis Space Center, Mississippi. A description of the instrumentation and methods used to evaluate this technique for measuring water-surface slope as well as a summary of the entire data set is presented.
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USGS Numbered Series
Velocity and stage data collected in a laboratory flume for water-surface slope determination using a pipe manometer
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