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Lithology, hydraulic properties, and water quality of the Sandstone Aquifer in the northwestern part of the Bad River Indian Reservation, Wisconsin, 1998-1999

Open-File Report 2004-1425

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Abstract

The Precambrian sandstone aquifer in the northwestern part of the Bad River Band of Lake Superior Tribe of Chippewa Indians Reservation, Ashland County, Wisconsin, provides much of the drinking water to area residents. A study was undertaken in cooperation with the Bad River Tribe to provide specific information about the lithology, hydraulic properties, and water quality of the sandstone aquifer. During 1998 and 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey installed three monitoring wells, collected and analyzed lithologic and water samples, and conducted geophysical logging and aquifer tests to characterize the sandstone aquifer. The two monitoring wells in the southeastern part of the study area, the Diaperville Monitoring Well #1 (Diaperville MW #1) and the Tolman Monitoring Well #1 (Tolman MW #1) , are believed to have encountered older Middle Proterozoic Oronto Group sandstones. The sandstone encountered in the Ackley Monitoring Well #1 (Ackley MW #1) is believed to be Chequamegon Sandstone of the Late Proterozoic Bayfield Group. This interpretation is based on previous studies, as well as thin- section analysis of sandstone core recovered from the Ackley Monitoring Well #1. Results of aquifer tests conducted in the Diaperville Monitoring Well #1 and the Tolman Monitoring Well #1 provide ranges for hydraulic param - eter values in the sandstone aquifer: transmissivity ranges from 83 to 509 square feet per day; hydraulic conductivity ranges from 1.6 to 4.5 feet per day; storativity ranges from 0.00019 to 0.00046; and specific capacity ranges from 0.22 to 0.67 gallons per minute per foot. Though high- and low-angle fractures are present in Ackley Monitoring Well #1 core, the hydraulic properties of the bedrock appear to be due largely to the matrix porosity measured in thin section (16–21 percent) and permeability of the sandstone. The aquifer test for the Diaperville Monitoring Well #1 resulted in observed drawdown in nearby glacial wells, evidence of a hydraulic connection between the sandstone aquifer and the glacial deposits. Major ion analyses indicate that the water sampled from the sandstone aquifer at the Ackley site is of the calcium-magnesium-sodium- bicarbonate type. Based on a single sampling set, volatile organic constituents were not detected in water samples from the Diaperville Monitoring Well #1 or the Ackley Monitoring Well #1. 

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Additional publication details

Publication type:
Report
Publication Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Title:
Lithology, hydraulic properties, and water quality of the Sandstone Aquifer in the northwestern part of the Bad River Indian Reservation, Wisconsin, 1998-1999
Series title:
Open-File Report
Series number:
2004-1425
Year Published:
2005
Language:
English
Publisher:
U.S. Geological Survey
Contributing office(s):
Wisconsin Water Science Center
Description:
vi, 47 p.
Country:
Untied States
State:
Wisconsin
County:
Ashland County, Iron County
Other Geospatial:
Bad River Reservation
Online Only (Y/N):
N
Additional Online Files (Y/N):
N