The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a jawless parasitic eel-like fish native to the Atlantic Ocean (fig. 1), was accidentally introduced into the Great Lakes in the early 20th century through the construction of shipping canals. A member of the Petromyzonidae family, the primitive parasite has been identified as a major cause of the collapse of the Great Lakes fishery in the 1940s and 1950s. The lampricides 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2'5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide (niclosamide) have been used to control larval sea lampreys in tributaries of the Great Lakes since the early 1960s. The lampricide TFM is the main compound used to keep sea lamprey populations in check while niclosamide is used primarily in combination with TFM as a cost-saving measure. The addition of niclosamide at a ratio of 1% to TFM will reduce the amount of TFM required for effective treatment by about 40%.
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USGS Numbered Series
Acute Toxicity of the Lampricides TFM and Niclosamide to Three Species of Unionid Mussels