Estimating 1970-99 average annual groundwater recharge in Wisconsin using streamflow data

Open-File Report 2009-1210
By: , and 



Average annual recharge in Wisconsin for the period 1970-99 was estimated using streamflow data from U.S. Geological Survey continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations and partial-record sites. Partial-record sites have discharge measurements collected during low-flow conditions. The average annual base flow of a stream divided by the drainage area is a good approximation of the recharge rate; therefore, once average annual base flow is determined recharge can be calculated. Estimates of recharge for nearly 72 percent of the surface area of the State are provided. The results illustrate substantial spatial variability of recharge across the State, ranging from less than 1 inch to more than 12 inches per year. The average basin size for partial-record sites (50 square miles) was less than the average basin size for the gaging stations (305 square miles). Including results for smaller basins reveals a spatial variability that otherwise would be smoothed out using only estimates for larger basins. An error analysis indicates that the techniques used provide base flow estimates with standard errors ranging from 5.4 to 14 percent.

Study Area

Publication type Report
Publication Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Title Estimating 1970-99 average annual groundwater recharge in Wisconsin using streamflow data
Series title Open-File Report
Series number 2009-1210
DOI 10.3133/ofr20091210
Year Published 2011
Language English
Publisher U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location Reston, VA
Contributing office(s) Wisconsin Water Science Center
Description iv, 13 p.; Appendices
Time Range Start 1969-10-01
Time Range End 1999-09-30
Country United States
State Wisconsin
Google Analytic Metrics Metrics page
Additional publication details