Weather conditions produced by Tropical Storm Fay from August 15 through September 26, 2008, caused historic flooding, spawned 19 tornadoes, inflicted $390 million in damages, and contributed to five deaths in Florida. This slow-moving system made four separate landfalls accompanied by extensive rainfall and some wind-induced effects. Major flooding with new period-of-record instantaneous peaks and maximum monthly mean streamflows were reported throughout the Ochlockonee and St. Marks Rivers in the Florida Panhandle and the St. Marys, St. Johns, Econlockhatchee, and Wekiva Rivers in northeastern Florida. A total of 147 field crews from the U.S. Geological Survey in Florida made flood measurements immediately following passage of Tropical Storm Fay and continued to monitor high-water conditions for the subsequent 24 days. These measurements were used to verify and document the ratings and the peaks of this climatic event throughout the State.