Analysis of pharmaceutical and other organic wastewater compounds in filtered and unfiltered water samples by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry
Research on the effects of exposure of stream biota to complex mixtures of pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds associated with wastewater requires the development of additional analytical capabilities for these compounds in water samples. Two gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analytical methods used at the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) to analyze organic compounds associated with wastewater were adapted to include additional pharmaceutical and other organic compounds beginning in 2009. This report includes a description of method performance for 42 additional compounds for the filtered-water method (hereafter referred to as the filtered method) and 46 additional compounds for the unfiltered-water method (hereafter referred to as the unfiltered method). The method performance for the filtered method described in this report has been published for seven of these compounds; however, the addition of several other compounds to the filtered method and the addition of the compounds to the unfiltered method resulted in the need to document method performance for both of the modified methods. Most of these added compounds are pharmaceuticals or pharmaceutical degradates, although two nonpharmaceutical compounds are included in each method. The main pharmaceutical compound classes added to the two modified methods include muscle relaxants, opiates, analgesics, and sedatives. These types of compounds were added to the original filtered and unfiltered methods largely in response to the tentative identification of a wide range of pharmaceutical and other organic compounds in samples collected from wastewater-treatment plants.
Filtered water samples are extracted by vacuum through disposable solid-phase cartridges that contain modified polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin. Unfiltered samples are extracted by using continuous liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane. The compounds of interest for filtered and unfiltered sample types were determined by use of the capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.
The performance of each method was assessed by using data on recoveries of compounds in fortified surface-water, wastewater, and reagent-water samples. These experiments (referred to as spike experiments) consist of fortifying (or spiking) samples with known amounts of target analytes. Surface-water-spike experiments were performed by using samples obtained from a stream in Colorado (unfiltered method) and a stream in New York (filtered method). Wastewater spike experiments for both the filtered and unfiltered methods were performed by using a treated wastewater obtained from a single wastewater treatment plant in New York. Surface water and wastewater spike experiments were fortified at both low and high concentrations and termed low- and high-level spikes, respectively. Reagent water spikes were assessed in three ways: (1) set spikes, (2) a low-concentration fortification experiment, and (3) a high-concentration fortification experiment. Set spike samples have been determined since 2009, and consist of analysis of fortified reagent water for target compounds included for each group of 10 to18 environmental samples analyzed at the NWQL. The low-concentration and high-concentration reagent spike experiments, by contrast, represent a one-time assessment of method performance. For each spike experiment, mean recoveries ranging from 60 to 130 percent indicate low bias, and relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than (<) 30 percent indicate low variability.
Of the compounds included in the filtered method, 21 had mean recoveries ranging from 63 to 129 percent for the low-level and high-level surface-water spikes, and had low (<15 percent) RSDs for these spikes. The remaining 21 compounds generally had high bias for the low-level or the high-level spike experiments for surface water [mean recoveries <58 percent or greater than (>)132 percent]. For wastewater spikes, 24 of the compounds included in the filtered method had recoveries ranging from 61 to 130 percent for the low-level and high-level spikes. RSDs were <29 percent for both of these spike experiments for the 24 compounds. The remaining 18 compounds in the filtered method generally had high recoveries (>130 percent) or variable recoveries (RSDs >30 percent) for low-level wastewater spikes, or low recoveries (<60 percent) for high-level wastewater spikes. Of the compounds included in the filtered method, 34 had mean set-spike recoveries between 61 and 126 percent, and RSDs <30 percent.
Of the compounds included in the unfiltered method, 17 had mean spike recoveries ranging from 74 to 129 percent and RSDs ranging from 5 to 25 percent for low-level and high-level surface water spikes. The remaining compounds had poor mean recoveries (<60 or >130 percent), or high RSDs (>29 percent) for these spikes. For wastewater, 14 of the compounds included in the unfiltered method had mean recoveries ranging from 62 to 127 percent and RSDs <25 percent for the low-level and high-level spikes. Most of the remaining compounds had high mean recoveries for wastewater (>130 percent), or low mean recoveries (<20 percent) or high RSDs (>33 percent) for the low-level wastewater spikes. Of the compounds found in wastewater, 24 had mean set spike recoveries ranging from 64 to 104 percent and RSDs <30 percent.
Separate method detection limits (MDLs) were computed for surface water and wastewater for both the filtered and unfiltered methods. Filtered method MDLs ranged from 0.007 to 0.14 microgram per liter (μg/L) for the surface water matrix and from 0.004 to 0.62 μg/L for the wastewater matrix. Unfiltered method MDLs ranged from 0.014 to 0.33 μg/L for the surface water matrix and from 0.008 to 0.36 μg/L for the wastewater matrix.
|Publication Subtype||USGS Numbered Series|
|Title||Analysis of pharmaceutical and other organic wastewater compounds in filtered and unfiltered water samples by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry|
|Series title||Open-File Report|
|Publisher||U.S Geological Survey|
|Publisher location||Reston, VA|
|Contributing office(s)||New York Water Science Center|
|Description||Report: v, 24 p.; Appendix|
|Online Only (Y/N)||Y|
|Google Analytic Metrics||Metrics page|