A mobile bioassay trailer was used to assess the efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf-CL145A) spray dried powder (SDP) formulation for controlling zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from two midwestern lakes: Lake Carlos (Alexandria, Minnesota) and Shawano Lake (Shawano, Wisconsin). The effects of SDP exposure concentration and exposure duration on zebra mussel survival were evaluated along with the evaluation of a benthic injection application technique to reduce the amount of SDP required to induce zebra mortality.
Groups of zebra mussels were collected from each lake and allowed to adhere to test substrates for at least 15 days before exposure to SDP. Two independent trials were completed at each lake: (1) a whole water column (WWC) application trial was used to evaluate the effects of SDP exposure concentration and exposure duration on zebra mussel survival; and (2) a benthic injection (BI) application trial in which the SDP was injected into the test tanks to determine the efficacy of a benthic injection application technique to reduce the amount of SDP required to induced zebra mussel mortality. Three exposure durations (6, 9, and 12 hours) were evaluated in the WWC trials and a 12-hour exposure duration was evaluated in the BI trials. All trials contained zebra mussels which were removed at the completion of each exposure duration, consolidated into wire mesh cages, and held in the lake for approximately 30 days before being assessed for survival.
For all trials, treatment was assigned to each test tank according to a randomized block design (n = 3 test tanks per treatment). The treatment groups included (1) an untreated control group, (2) a group that received an application of 50 milligrams of SDP per liter (mg SDP/L), and (3) a group that received an application of 100 mg SDP/L. During the BI trials, SDP was administered to achieve the desired exposure concentration in the bottom 50 percent (175 L) of the test tank. All exposure concentrations are reported as active ingredient.
Approximately 30 days after exposure, zebra mussels were sorted into live and dead, and enumerated. Mean survival of zebra mussels in control treatments exceeded 95 percent. Mean survival of zebra mussels in the Lake Carlos WWC SDP-treated groups ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 percent and when compared at the same exposure duration, no difference was detected in survival between the 50 and 100 milligrams per liter (mg/L) treatment groups. Similarly, mean survival of zebra mussels in the Shawano Lake WWC SDP-treated groups ranged from 2.0 to 12.6 percent and when compared at the same exposure duration, no difference was detected in survival between the 50- and 100-mg/L treatment groups. Mean survival of zebra mussels in the Lake Carlos BI trial SDP-treated groups did not differ (p = 0.93) and was 18.1 and 18.0 percent in the 50- and 100-mg/L treatment groups, respectively. Mean survival of zebra mussels in the Shawano Lake BI trial SDP-treated groups differed (p < 0.01) and was 2.9 and 0.9 percent in the 50- and 100-mg/L treatment groups, respectively. Survival of zebra mussels assigned to the SDP-treated groups in the Lake Carlos WWC trial (12-hour exposure duration) differed from the survival of zebra mussels assigned to the SDP-treated groups in the Lake Carlos BI trial; however, after modification of the BI application technique, no difference (p = 0.22) was detected between the survival of zebra mussel in the Shawano Lake WWC (12-hour exposure duration) and BI trials.
Additional publication details
|Publication Subtype||USGS Numbered Series|
|Title||Efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf-CL145A) spray dried powder for controlling zebra mussels adhering to test substrates|
|Series title||Open-File Report|
|Publisher||U.S. Geological Survey|
|Publisher location||Reston, VA|
|Contributing office(s)||Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center|
|Description||viii, 510 p.|
|Other Geospatial||Lake Carlos, Shawano Lake|
|Online Only (Y/N)||Y|
|Additional Online Files (Y/N)||N|