Numerical simulation of groundwater flow at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Naval Base Kitsap, Bremerton, Washington

Open-File Report 2016-1135
Prepared in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command-Northwest
By: , and 

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Abstract

Information about groundwater-flow paths and locations where groundwater discharges at and near Puget Sound Naval Shipyard is necessary for understanding the potential migration of subsurface contaminants by groundwater at the shipyard. The design of some remediation alternatives would be aided by knowledge of whether groundwater flowing at specific locations beneath the shipyard will eventually discharge directly to Sinclair Inlet of Puget Sound, or if it will discharge to the drainage system of one of the six dry docks located in the shipyard. A 1997 numerical (finite difference) groundwater-flow model of the shipyard and surrounding area was constructed to help evaluate the potential for groundwater discharge to Puget Sound. That steady-state, multilayer numerical model with homogeneous hydraulic characteristics indicated that groundwater flowing beneath nearly all of the shipyard discharges to the dry-dock drainage systems, and only shallow groundwater flowing beneath the western end of the shipyard discharges directly to Sinclair Inlet.

Updated information from a 2016 regional groundwater-flow model constructed for the greater Kitsap Peninsula was used to update the 1997 groundwater model of the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. That information included a new interpretation of the hydrogeologic units underlying the area, as well as improved recharge estimates. Other updates to the 1997 model included finer discretization of the finite-difference model grid into more layers, rows, and columns, all with reduced dimensions. This updated Puget Sound Naval Shipyard model was calibrated to 2001–2005 measured water levels, and hydraulic characteristics of the model layers representing different hydrogeologic units were estimated with the aid of state-of-the-art parameter optimization techniques.

The flow directions and discharge locations predicted by this updated model generally match the 1997 model despite refinements and other changes. In the updated model, most groundwater discharge recharged within the boundaries of the shipyard is to the dry docks; only at the western end of the shipyard does groundwater discharge directly to Puget Sound. Particle tracking for the existing long-term monitoring well network suggests that only a few wells intercept groundwater that originates as recharge within the shipyard boundary.

Suggested Citation

Jones, J.L., Johnson, K.H., and Frans, L.M., 2016, Numerical simulation of groundwater flow at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Naval Base Kitsap, Bremerton, Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2016-1135, 35 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20161135.

ISSN: 2331-1258 (online)

Study Area

Table of Contents

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Groundwater-Flow System
  • Numerical Simulation of the Groundwater-Flow System
  • Model Applications
  • Summary
  • References Cited

Additional publication details

Publication type Report
Publication Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Title Numerical simulation of groundwater flow at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Naval Base Kitsap, Bremerton, Washington
Series title Open-File Report
Series number 2016-1135
DOI 10.3133/ofr20161135
Year Published 2016
Language English
Publisher U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location Reston, VA
Contributing office(s) Washington Water Science Center
Description Report:
First page 1
Last page 35
Country United States
State Washington
City Bremerton
Other Geospatial Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Naval Base Kitsap,
Online Only (Y/N) Y
Additional Online Files (Y/N) N