Numerical simulation of groundwater flow at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Naval Base Kitsap, Bremerton, Washington
Information about groundwater-flow paths and locations where groundwater discharges at and near Puget Sound Naval Shipyard is necessary for understanding the potential migration of subsurface contaminants by groundwater at the shipyard. The design of some remediation alternatives would be aided by knowledge of whether groundwater flowing at specific locations beneath the shipyard will eventually discharge directly to Sinclair Inlet of Puget Sound, or if it will discharge to the drainage system of one of the six dry docks located in the shipyard. A 1997 numerical (finite difference) groundwater-flow model of the shipyard and surrounding area was constructed to help evaluate the potential for groundwater discharge to Puget Sound. That steady-state, multilayer numerical model with homogeneous hydraulic characteristics indicated that groundwater flowing beneath nearly all of the shipyard discharges to the dry-dock drainage systems, and only shallow groundwater flowing beneath the western end of the shipyard discharges directly to Sinclair Inlet.
Updated information from a 2016 regional groundwater-flow model constructed for the greater Kitsap Peninsula was used to update the 1997 groundwater model of the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. That information included a new interpretation of the hydrogeologic units underlying the area, as well as improved recharge estimates. Other updates to the 1997 model included finer discretization of the finite-difference model grid into more layers, rows, and columns, all with reduced dimensions. This updated Puget Sound Naval Shipyard model was calibrated to 2001–2005 measured water levels, and hydraulic characteristics of the model layers representing different hydrogeologic units were estimated with the aid of state-of-the-art parameter optimization techniques.
The flow directions and discharge locations predicted by this updated model generally match the 1997 model despite refinements and other changes. In the updated model, most groundwater discharge recharged within the boundaries of the shipyard is to the dry docks; only at the western end of the shipyard does groundwater discharge directly to Puget Sound. Particle tracking for the existing long-term monitoring well network suggests that only a few wells intercept groundwater that originates as recharge within the shipyard boundary.
Jones, J.L., Johnson, K.H., and Frans, L.M., 2016, Numerical simulation of groundwater flow at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Naval Base Kitsap, Bremerton, Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2016-1135, 35 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20161135.
ISSN: 2331-1258 (online)
Table of Contents
- Groundwater-Flow System
- Numerical Simulation of the Groundwater-Flow System
- Model Applications
- References Cited
Additional publication details
|Publication Subtype||USGS Numbered Series|
|Title||Numerical simulation of groundwater flow at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Naval Base Kitsap, Bremerton, Washington|
|Series title||Open-File Report|
|Publisher||U.S. Geological Survey|
|Publisher location||Reston, VA|
|Contributing office(s)||Washington Water Science Center|
|Other Geospatial||Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Naval Base Kitsap,|
|Online Only (Y/N)||Y|
|Additional Online Files (Y/N)||N|
|Google Analytic Metrics||Metrics page|