Investigation of U.S. Foreign Reliance on Critical Minerals—U.S. Geological Survey Technical Input Document in Response to Executive Order No. 13953 Signed September 30, 2020

Open-File Report 2020-1127
By: , and 

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Abstract

Over the past few decades (1990–2019), the United States has become reliant on foreign sources to meet domestic demand for a large and growing number of mineral commodities. In combination with recent trends towards progressively concentrated supply of mineral commodities from a limited number of countries, this heightened import reliance may increase the risk to the United States economy and national security. Several factors obscure the true net import reliance of mineral commodities essential to the United States, including indirect trade reliance, embedded trade reliance, and foreign ownership. This report provides a detailed overview of contributions to and trends of these mineral commodity supply risks and provides an outline of the salient factors pertaining to each mineral commodity’s supply chain. It also describes some additional considerations and provides a general framework for evaluating different strategies aimed at reducing net import reliance and supply risk.

Suggested Citation

Nassar, N.T., Alonso, E., and Brainard, J.L., 2020, Investigation of U.S. Foreign Reliance on Critical Minerals—U.S. Geological Survey Technical Input Document in Response to Executive Order No. 13953 Signed September 30, 2020 (Ver. 1.1, December 7, 2020): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2020–1127, 37 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20201127.

ISSN: 2331-1258 (online)

Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgments
  • Abstract
  • Statement of Issue
  • Introduction
  • U.S. Mineral Commodity Net Import Reliance
  • Additional Risk Considerations
  • Strategies for Reducing Net Import Reliance
  • Mineral Commodity Overview
  • Mineral Commodity Overview
  • References Cited
  • Appendix 1. Mineral Commodity Narratives
Publication type Report
Publication Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Title Investigation of U.S. Foreign Reliance on Critical Minerals—U.S. Geological Survey technical input document in response to Executive Order No. 13953 Signed September 30, 2020
Series title Open-File Report
Series number 2020-1127
DOI 10.3133/ofr20201127
Edition Version 1.0: December 4, 2020; Version 1.1: December 7, 2020
Year Published 2020
Language English
Publisher U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location Reston, VA
Contributing office(s) National Minerals Information Center
Description vii, 37 p.
Online Only (Y/N) Y
Additional Online Files (Y/N) N
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