Cottonwood Creek basin is a 377 square mile area in central Oklahoma. The rim of the basin has altitudes as high as 1,300 feet, and the mouth is at an altitude of 910. Deposits of Quaternary age consist of alluvium along the stream courses and high terrace deposits along the southern rim of the basin. The alluvium contains a high percentage of clay and silt, ranges in thickness from a few inches to 40 feet, and underlies about 36 square miles of the basin. Sandstone, siltstone, and shale of Permian age, which form the bedrock, consist of the Garber sandstone along the eastern edge, the Hennessey shale through the central part, and Flowerpot shale along the western edge.
Replenishment of water in the alluvium is from precipitation, lateral seepage and runoff from adjoining areas, and infiltration from the stream channels during high flows. The major use of ground water in the alluvium is transpiration by cottonwood and willow trees. Virtually no water is withdrawn from the alluvium by wells.
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