Three sequences of volcanic and sedimentary rocks are identified in the Precambrian rocks of the Bi'r Ghamrah quadrangle at the eastern edge of the Precambrian Shield in central Saudi Arabia. The oldest sequence is called the Bi'r Khountina Group. It consists of conglomerate marble, andesite, and graywacke. Unconformably overlying this group is a sequence of graywacke with minor lava called the Murdama Group. In a small area in the southern part of the quadrangle, these rocks are unconformably overlain by rhyolitic tuff and rhyolite tentatively correlated with the Shammar Rhyolite.
The older of these sedimentary and volcanic rocks were intruded by diorite and gabbro and by a large pluton of alkalic granite. A contact metamorphic aureole was formed in the Bi'r Khountina and Murdama Groups adjacent to the granite, and feeder dikes of the Sbmmmar Rhyolite(?) intrude the granite.
The Bi'r Khountina Group is folded into a south-plunging asymmetrical anticlinorium, the west limb of which is repeated across northwest-trending faults. The Murdama Group appears to have been folded along the same axes, but the contact aureole against the alkalic granite and the imprint of the west-northwest striking Najd fault zone cause the rocks of the Murdama Group to appear to trend westward.
Results of spectrographic and chemical analyses of wadi sand, heavy-mineral concentrates, and detrital magnetite show small anomalies. The ultramafic rocks intruded prior to the deposition of the Murdama Group are the source of anomalous chromium and lanthanum and of threshold nickel, scandium, and vanadium. The intrusive rocks younger than the Murdama Group are sources for anomalous lead and threshold silver, boron, barium, beryllium, zirconium, lanthanum, and tin.
One small ancient working, probably opened for gold, is present, and at least four places in the Precambrian part of the quadrangle ere potentially favorable for gold, silver, and lead. Chromite is a potential resource in the northeastern part of the quadrangle.
Additional publication details
USGS Numbered Series
Reconnaissance geology of the Precambrian rocks in the Bi'r Ghamrah quadrangle, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia