Hydrologic monitoring of a waste-injection well near Milton, Florida, June 1975 - June 1977

Open-File Report 78-101
Prepared in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation
By:  and 



This report presents the hydraulic and chemical data collected from June 1, 1975, when injection began, to June 30, 1977 through a monitoring program at a deep-well waste-injection system at the American Cyanamid Company's plant near Milton, about 12 miles northwest of Pensacola. The injection system consists of a primary injection well, a standby injection well, and two deep monitor wells all completed open hole in the lower limestone of the Floridan aquifer and one shallow-monitor well completed in the upper limestone of the Floridan aquifer. Two of the monitor wells and the standby injection well are used to observe hydraulic and geochemical effects of waste injection in the injection zone at locations 8,180 feet northeast, 1,560 feet south, and 1,025 feet southwest of the primary injection well. The shallow-monitor well, used to observe any effects in the first permeable zone above the 200-foot-thick confining bed, is 28 feet north of the primary injection well.

Since injection began in June 1975, 607 million gallons of treated industrial liquid waste with a pH of 4.6 to 6.3 and containing high concentrations of nitrate, organic nitrogen and carbon have been injected into a saline-water-filled limestone aquifer. Wellhead pressure at the injection well in June 1977 average 137 pounds per square inch and the hydraulic pressure gradient was 0.53 pound per square inch per foot of depth to the top of the injection zone. Water levels rose from 36 to 74 feet at the three wells used to monitor the injection zone during the 25-month period. The water level in the shallow-monitor well declined about 8 feet. No changes were detected in the chemical character of water from the shallow-monitor well and deep-monitor well-north. Increases in concentration of bicarbonate and dissolved organic carbon were detected in water from the deep-test monitor well in February 1976 and at the standby injection well in August 1976. In addition to increases in bicarbonate and dissolved organic carbon, sulfate, total organic nitrogen, and total nitrogen concentrations have also increased substantially in samples from these wells. Nitrogen gas concentrations in water samples collected at the three deep-monitor wells ranged from 19 to 176 milligrams per liter, methane from 4.5 to 11.4 milligrams per liter, and carbon dioxide from 7.7 to 44 milligrams per liter. The most probable number of denitrifying bacteria in water samples collected at the three deep-monitor wells ranged from less than 2 colonies to 17 colonies per 100 milliliters.

None of the water samples collected in April 1977 at the three deep-monitor wells showed positive concentrations of acetone, ethanol, methanol, or acrylonitrile.

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Publication type Report
Publication Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Title Hydrologic monitoring of a waste-injection well near Milton, Florida, June 1975 - June 1977
Series title Open-File Report
Series number 78-101
DOI 10.3133/ofr78101
Year Published 1978
Language English
Publisher U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location Tallahassee, FL
Description v, 74 p.
Country United States
State Florida
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