Long tension cracks caused by declines of ground-water level at four sites in Arizona, California, and Nevada occur at points of maximum, convex-upward curvature in subsidence profiles based on relevelings of closely-spaced bench marks aligned perpendicular to the cracks. We conclude the cracks are caused by horizontal strains associated with the differential subsidence.
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USGS Numbered Series
Earth fissures and localized differential subsidence