Hydrologic data was collected during the 1988 water year in cooperation with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources Geological Survey Bureau in the Big Spring ground-water basin located in Clayton County, Iowa. Information on precipitation, streams, and ground water was collected in the basin.
Total rainfall at Big Spring was 24.08 inches. The greatest monthly rainfall was in September. Calcium and sulfate were the predominant ions in the rain and the median ammonia and nitrate concentrations as nitrogen were 0.40 and 0.37 mg/L (milligrams per liter), respectively.
Stream discharge, water temperature, specific conductance, and pH were monitored continuously and monthly water-quality samples were collected at three sites in the basin. In the streams, water temperature and pH vary diurnally and are greatest during the day. Specific conductance varies inversely with water temperature and pH. The predominant ions in the streams were calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate. Nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 15 mg/L. Pesticide concentrations ranged from less than 0.10 µg/L (micrograms per liter) to 0.72 µg/L. Atrazine was detected in 12 of 13 stream samples and cyanazine was detected in 4 of 13 samples.
The daily mean temperature of the water in Big Spring ranged from 9.7 to 10.6 degrees Celsius, the daily mean specific conductance ranged from 698 to 735 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius, and the daily median pH ranged from 6.7 to 7.1. Calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate were the predominant ions in solution. Nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen concentrations ranged from 7.5 to 11 mg/L. Atrazine was the only pesticide detected in the monthly samples from Big Spring. Atrazine concentrations were greater than the detection limit in six of seven samples and ranged from less than 0.10 to 0.26 µg/L.
During a baseflow seepage study, June 28 and 29, the discharge lost by streams in the basin was 5.57 cubic feet per second and the dissolved nitrogen load lost was 0.19 tons per day. The discharge and total dissolved nitrogen leaving the basin in streams was 2.93 cubic feet per second and 0.02 tons per day, respectively.
Additional publication details
|Publication Subtype||USGS Numbered Series|
|Title||Hydrologic data for the Big Spring basin, Clayton County, Iowa, water year 1988|
|Series title||Open-File Report|
|Publisher||U.S. Geological Survey|
|Publisher location||Iowa City|
|Contributing office(s)||Iowa Water Science Center|
|Description||vi, 44 p. ill.; 28 cm.|
|Other Geospatial||Big Spring basin|
|Online Only (Y/N)||N|
|Additional Online Files (Y/N)||N|
|Google Analytic Metrics||Metrics page|