Chemical and physical characteristics of coal and carbonaceous shale samples from the Salt Range coal field, Punjab Province, Pakistan
Open-File Report 90-524
Report prepared jointly by the Geological Survey of Pakistan and the U.S. Geological Survey under the auspices of the U.S. Agency for International Development
- Peter D. Warwick , T. Shakoor , Shahid Javed , S.T.A. Mashhadi , H. Hussain , M. Anwar , and M.I. Ghaznavi
Sixty coal and carbonaceous shale samples collected from the Paleocene Patala Formation in the Salt Range coal field, Punjab Province, Pakistan, were analyzed to examine the relationships between coal bed chemical and physical characteristics and depositional environments. Results of proximate and ultimate analyses, reported on an as received basis, indicate that coal beds have an average ash yield of 24.23 percent, average sulfur content of 5.32 percent, average pyritic sulfur content of 4.07 percent, and average calorific value of 8943 Btu (4972 kcal/kg). Thirty five coal samples, analyzed on a whole coal, dry basis for selected trace elements and oxides, have anomalously high average concentrations of Ti, at O.3& percent; Zr, at 382 ppm; and Se, at 11.4 ppm, compared to world wide averages for these elements in coal.
Some positive correlation coefficients, significant at a 0.01 level, are those between total sulfur and As, pyritic sulfur and As, total sulfur and sample location, organic sulfur and Se, calorific value (Btu) and sample location, and coal bed thickness and Se. Calorific values -for the samples, calculated on a moist, mineral matter free basis, indicate that the apparent rank of the coal is high volatile C bituminous.
Variations observed in the chemical and physical characteristics of the coal beds may be related to depositional environments. Total ash yields and concentrations of Se and organic sulfur increase toward more landward depositional environments and may be related to an increase of fluvial influence on peat deposition. Variations in pyritic sulfur concentrations may be related to post-peat pyrite filled burrows commonly observed in the upper part of the coal bed. The thickest coal beds that have the lowest ash content, and highest calorific values, formed from peats deposited in back barrier, tidal flat environments of the central and western parts of the coal field. The reasons for correlations between Se and coal bed thickness and Se and ash content are not clear and may be a product of averaging.
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- USGS Numbered Series
- Chemical and physical characteristics of coal and carbonaceous shale samples from the Salt Range coal field, Punjab Province, Pakistan
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- Open-File Report
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- U.S. Geological Survey
- ii, 44 p.
- Punjab Province