An approach was developed to determine if recent changes in the use of herbicides has affected herbicide concentrations in Midwestern streams. This approach also provides a plan to determine if the abnormally high rainfall and flooding in 1993 has an effect on nitrate concentrations in 1994 in streams that flooded in 1993. The approach involves sampling 53 stream sites, 50 of which were sampled in 1989 and 1990 as part of a reconnaissance to determine the geographic and seasonal distribution of herbicides in 10 Midwestern States. Sites will be sampled twice, once prior to application of herbicides, in March or early April, and once during the first runoff event after application of herbicides. Samples will be analyzed for 11 herbicide and 2 atrazine metabolites by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Samples will also be analyzed for ESA (an alachlor metabolite), two cyanazine metabolites, and nutrients.
Changes to the manufacturers' label have decreased the maximum recommended application rate for atrazine on com and sorghum by about 50 percent since the 1989-90 study. Conversely, the use of other herbicides, such as cyanazine, has increased by more than 25 percent since 1989. Statistical procedures such as Wilcoxon signed rank tests for paired samples will be used to determine if the distributions of herbicide and nitrate concentrations in 1994 are different from those measured in 1989 and 1990.
|Publication Subtype||USGS Numbered Series|
|Title||Plan of study to determine the effect of changes in herbicide use on herbicide concentrations in Midwestern streams, 1989-94|
|Series title||Open-File Report|
|Publisher||U.S. Geological Survey|
|Publisher location||Denver, CO|
|Contributing office(s)||Colorado Water Science Center, Toxic Substances Hydrology Program|
|Description||iv, 14 p.|
|Time Range Start||1989-01-01|
|Time Range End||1994-12-31|
|State||Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin|
|Google Analytic Metrics||Metrics page|