Level II scour analysis for Bridge 5C (CORITH0003005C) on Town Highway 3, crossing Cooksville Brook, Corinth, Vermont
Open-File Report 97-111
Prepared in cooperation with Vermont Agency of Transportation and Federal Highway Administration
- Michael A. Ivanoff and Tim Severance
This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CORITH0003005C on Town Highway 3 crossing Cooksville Brook, Corinth, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.
The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in east-central Vermont. The 20.2-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture with a residence on the upstream right bank near the bridge. The immediate channel banks have some woody vegetation cover.
In the study area, Cooksville Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.005 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 46 ft and an average channel depth of 8 ft. The channel bed material ranged from sand to cobble and had a median grain size (D50) of 41.0 mm (0.135 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on September 5, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable.
The Town Highway 3 crossing of Cooksville Brook is a 39-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 37-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 17, 1995). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls on the left abutment. The channel is skewed approximately 30 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 0 degrees.
A scour hole 0.5 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed along the right abutment during the Level I assessment. The only scour protection measures at the site were type-2 stone fill (less than 36 inches diameter) at the upstream and downstream ends of the right abutment and type-4 (less than 60 inches diameter) along the upstream right bank below the residence. Also, there is a wall along the upstream right bank. Additional details describing conditions at the site are included in the Level II Summary and Appendices D and E.
Scour depths and rock rip-rap sizes were computed using the general guidelines described in Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18 (Richardson and others, 1995). Total scour at a highway crossing is comprised of three components: 1) long-term streambed degradation; 2) contraction scour (due to accelerated flow caused by a reduction in flow area at a bridge) and; 3) local scour (caused by accelerated flow around piers and abutments). Total scour is the sum of the three components. Equations are available to compute depths for contraction and local scour and a summary of the results of these computations follows.
Contraction scour for all modelled flows ranged from 2.7 to 3.3 ft. The worst-case contraction scour occurred at the 500-year discharge. Abutment scour ranged from 7.0 to 19.0 ft. The worst-case left abutment scour occurred at the incipient overtopping discharge. The worst-case right abutment scour occurred at the 500-year discharge. Additional information on scour depths and depths to armoring are included in the section titled “Scour Results”. Scoured-streambed elevations, based on the calculated scour depths, are presented in tables 1 and 2. A cross-section of the scour computed at the bridge is presented in figure 8. Scour depths were calculated assuming an infinite depth of erosive material and a homogeneous particle-size distribution.
It is generally accepted that the Froehlich equation (abutment scour) gives “excessively conservative estimates of scour depths” (Richardson and others, 1995, p. 47). Usually, computed scour depths are evaluated in combination with other information including (but not limited to) historical performance during flood events, the geomorphic stability assessment, existing scour protection measures, and the results of the hydraulic analyses. Therefore, scour depths adopted by VTAOT may differ from the computed values documented herein.
Additional publication details
- Publication type:
- Publication Subtype:
- USGS Numbered Series
- Level II scour analysis for Bridge 5C (CORITH0003005C) on Town Highway 3, crossing Cooksville Brook, Corinth, Vermont
- Series title:
- Open-File Report
- Series number:
- Year Published:
- U.S. Geological Survey
- Publisher location:
- Pembroke, NH
- iv, 50 p.
- United States
- Other Geospatial:
- Cooksville Brook