Level II scour analysis for Bridge 7 (CHESTH00030007) on Town Highway 3, crossing the South Branch Williams River, Chester, Vermont

Open-File Report 97-362

Prepared in cooperation with Vermont Agency of Transportation and Federal Highway Administration



This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CHESTH00030007 on Town Highway 3 which is also State Route 35 crossing the South Branch Williams River, Chester, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in southern Vermont. The 10.4-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture on the upstream right bank while the immediate bank has some trees. Downstream of the bridge and the upstream left bank are forested.

In the study area, the South Branch Williams River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 65 ft and an average bank height of 4 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 70.5 mm (0.231 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 26, 1996, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable. There are cutbanks on both the left and right banks alternating with point bars in the upstream reach.

The Town Highway 3 (VT 35) crossing of the South Branch Williams River is a 74-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 72-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 30, 1995). The bridge is supported by spill- through abutments. The channel is skewed approximately 5 degrees to the opening and the opening-skew-to-roadway is also 5 degrees.

Three channel scour holes 1.0 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth were observed during the Level I assessment in the upstream reach. There are no scour protection measures at the site. Additional details describing conditions at the site are included in the Level II Summary and Appendices D and E.

Scour depths and recommended rock rip-rap sizes were computed using the general guidelines described in Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18 (Richardson and others, 1995). Total scour at a highway crossing is comprised of three components: 1) long-term streambed degradation; 2) contraction scour (due to accelerated flow caused by a reduction in flow area at a bridge) and; 3) local scour (caused by accelerated flow around piers and abutments). Total scour is the sum of the three components. Equations are available to compute depths for contraction and local scour and a summary of the results of these computations follows.

Contraction scour for all modelled flows ranged from 0.0 to 0.4 ft. The worst-case contraction scour occurred at the 100-year. Abutment scour ranged from 4.1 to 15.5 ft. The worst-case abutment scour occurred at the 500-year. Additional information on scour depths and depths to armoring are included in the section titled “Scour Results”. Scoured- streambed elevations, based on the calculated scour depths, are presented in tables 1 and 2. A cross-section of the scour computed at the bridge is presented in figure 8. Scour depths were calculated assuming an infinite depth of erosive material and a homogeneous particle- size distribution.

It is generally accepted that the Froehlich equation (abutment scour) gives “excessively conservative estimates of scour depths” (Richardson and others, 1995, p. 47). Usually, computed scour depths are evaluated in combination with other information including (but not limited to) historical performance during flood events, the geomorphic stability assessment, existing scour protection measures, and the results of the hydraulic analyses. Therefore, scour depths adopted by VTAOT may differ from the computed values documented herein.

Study Area

Additional publication details

Publication type:
Publication Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Level II scour analysis for Bridge 7 (CHESTH00030007) on Town Highway 3, crossing the South Branch Williams River, Chester, Vermont
Series title:
Open-File Report
Series number:
Year Published:
U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location:
Pembroke, NH
iv, 50 p.
United States
Other Geospatial:
South Branch Williams River