The Eastern Cascades Slopes and Foothills Ecoregion (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997) covers approximately 57,329 km² (22,135 mi²) in the states of Washington, Oregon, and California (fig. 1). The ecoregion is bounded on the east by the Columbia Plateau, Blue Mountains, and Northern Basin and Range Ecoregions; on the south by the Sierra Nevada Ecoregion; on the west by the Klamath Mountains and Cascades Ecoregions; and on the north by the North Cascades Ecoregion (fig. 1). Because the Eastern Cascades Slopes and Foothills Ecoregion lies within the rain shadow of the Cascade Range, the annual amount of precipitation varies greatly, from 500 mm in the eastern and southern sections of the ecoregion to 3,000 mm in the area bordering the higher Cascade Range to the west. Precipitation (either rain or snow) falls mostly in the fall, through winter into spring. Elevations range from near sea level at the Columbia River to more than 3,300 m; most of the region is between 900 and 2,000 m high. In the plateaus, elevation generally varies from 60 to 600 m (McNab and Avers, 1994).