The dynamics of Hawaiian-style eruptions: A century of study

Professional Paper 1801- 8
By: , and 
Edited by: Michael P. PolandT. Jane Takahashi, and Claire M. Landowski



This chapter, prepared in celebration of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatoryʼs centennial, provides a historical lens through which to view modern paradigms of Hawaiian-style eruption dynamics. The models presented here draw heavily from observations, monitoring, and experiments conducted on Kīlauea Volcano, which, as the site of frequent and accessible eruptions, has attracted scientists from around the globe. Long-lived eruptions in particular—Halema‘uma‘u 1907–24, Kīlauea Iki 1959, Mauna Ulu 1969–74, Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō-Kupaianaha 1983–present, and Halema‘uma‘u 2008–present—have offered incomparable opportunities to conceptualize and constrain theoretical models with multidisciplinary data and to field-test model results. The central theme in our retrospective is the interplay of magmatic gas and near-liquidus basaltic melt. A century of study has shown that gas exsolution facilitates basaltic dike propagation; volatile solubility and vesiculation kinetics influence magma-rise rates and fragmentation depths; bubble interactions and gas-melt decoupling modulate magma rheology, eruption intensity, and plume dynamics; and pyroclast outgassing controls characteristics of eruption deposits. Looking to the future, we anticipate research leading to a better understanding of how eruptive activity is influenced by volatiles, including the physics of mixed CO2-H2O degassing, gas segregation in nonuniform conduits, and vaporization of external H2O during magma ascent.

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Additional publication details

Publication type Report
Publication Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Title The dynamics of Hawaiian-style eruptions: A century of study
Series title Professional Paper
Series number 1801
Chapter 8
DOI 10.3133/pp18018
Year Published 2014
Language English
Publisher U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location Reston, VA
Contributing office(s) Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, Volcano Hazards Program, Volcano Science Center
Description 32 p.
Larger Work Type Report
Larger Work Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Larger Work Title Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes
First page 323
Last page 354
Country United States
State Hawaii
Online Only (Y/N) N
Additional Online Files (Y/N) N
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