Flow-duration statistics under natural (undiverted) and diverted flow conditions were estimated for gaged and ungaged sites on 21 streams in northeast Maui, Hawaii. The estimates were made using the optimal combination of continuous-record gaging-station data, low-flow measurements, and values determined from regression equations developed as part of this study. Estimated 50- and 95-percent flow duration statistics for streams are presented and the analyses done to develop and evaluate the methods used in estimating the statistics are described. Estimated streamflow statistics are presented for sites where various amounts of streamflow data are available as well as for locations where no data are available.
Daily mean flows were used to determine flow-duration statistics for continuous-record stream-gaging stations in the study area following U.S. Geological Survey established standard methods. Duration discharges of 50- and 95-percent were determined from total flow and base flow for each continuous-record station. The index-station method was used to adjust all of the streamflow records to a common, long-term period. The gaging station on West Wailuaiki Stream (16518000) was chosen as the index station because of its record length (1914-2003) and favorable geographic location. Adjustments based on the index-station method resulted in decreases to the 50-percent duration total flow, 50-percent duration base flow, 95-percent duration total flow, and 95-percent duration base flow computed on the basis of short-term records that averaged 7, 3, 4, and 1 percent, respectively.
For the drainage basin of each continuous-record gaged site and selected ungaged sites, morphometric, geologic, soil, and rainfall characteristics were quantified using Geographic Information System techniques. Regression equations relating the non-diverted streamflow statistics to basin characteristics of the gaged basins were developed using ordinary-least-squares regression analyses. Rainfall rate, maximum basin elevation, and the elongation ratio of the basin were the basin characteristics used in the final regression equations for 50-percent duration total flow and base flow. Rainfall rate and maximum basin elevation were used in the final regression equations for the 95-percent duration total flow and base flow. The relative errors between observed and estimated flows ranged from 10 to 20 percent for the 50-percent duration total flow and base flow, and from 29 to 56 percent for the 95-percent duration total flow and base flow.
The regression equations developed for this study were used to determine the 50-percent duration total flow, 50-percent duration base flow, 95-percent duration total flow, and 95-percent duration base flow at selected ungaged diverted and undiverted sites. Estimated streamflow, prediction intervals, and standard errors were determined for 48 ungaged sites in the study area and for three gaged sites west of the study area. Relative errors were determined for sites where measured values of 95-percent duration discharge of total flow were available. East of Keanae Valley, the 95-percent duration discharge equation generally underestimated flow, and within and west of Keanae Valley, the equation generally overestimated flow. Reduction in 50- and 95-percent flow-duration values in stream reaches affected by diversions throughout the study area average 58 to 60 percent.
Additional publication details
USGS Numbered Series
Median and Low-Flow Characteristics for Streams under Natural and Diverted Conditions, Northeast Maui, Hawaii