Extensive remediation of the Drake Chemical Superfund Site has been ongoing since 1983. Contaminated soils were excavated and incinerated on site between 1996 and 1999. After 1999, remedial efforts focused on contaminated ground water. A ground-water remediation system was started in November 2000. The source area of the contaminated ground water was assumed to be the zone 1 area on the Drake Chemical site. The remedial system was designed to capture ground water migrating from zone 1. Also, the remediation system was designed to pump and treat the water in an anoxic environment and re-infiltrate the treated water underground through an infiltration gallery that is hydrologically downgradient of the extraction wells. A numerical ground-water flow model of the surrounding region was constructed to simulate the areas contributing recharge to remedial extraction wells installed on the Drake Chemical site. The three-dimensional numerical flow model was calibrated using the parameter-estimation process in MODFLOW-2000. The model included three layers that represented three poorly sorted alluvial sediment units that were characterized from geologic well and boring logs.
Steady-state ground-water flow was simulated to estimate the areas contributing recharge to three extraction wells for three different pumping scenarios--all wells pumping at 2 gallons per minute, at approximately 5 gallons per minute, and at 8 gallons per minute. Simulation results showed the contributing areas to the three extraction wells encompassed 92 percent of zone 1 at a pumping rate of approximately 5 gallons per minute. The contributing areas did not include a very small area in the southwestern part of zone 1 when the three extraction wells were pumped at approximately 5 gallons per minute. Pumping from a fourth extraction well in that area was discontinued early in the operation of the remediation system because the ground water in that area met performance standards. The areas contributing recharge to the three extraction wells did encompass zone 1 at a pumping rate of 8 gallons per minute. At pumping rates of 2 gallons per minute, the contributing areas for the three extraction wells did not encompass zone 1.
Additional publication details
USGS Numbered Series
Simulation of ground-water flow and areas contributing recharge to extraction wells at the Drake Chemical Superfund Site, City of Lock Haven and Castanea Township, Clinton County, Pennsylvania