Three boreholes were drilled at a farm site near Waupun, Wis., to improve the understanding of regional hydrogeology of the Ordovician Sinnipee Group. At the site the Sinnipee Group is the uppermost bedrock unit and is found to be about 183 ft thick. On the basis of core descriptions by the Illinois State Geological Survey, the Sinnipee Group at the site comprises (stratigraphically lowest to highest) the Platteville Formation (about 51 ft thick), the Decorah Formation (about 14 ft thick), and the Galena Dolomite (about 119 ft thick). The Illinois State Geological Survey noted that hardgrounds were common in the rock core, some having stratigraphic significance. Four very well developed hardgrounds were identified, three of which were used as formation or member contacts. The hardground at about 797 ft NGVD 29 represents the top of the Platteville Formation, the hardground at about 754 ft represents the top of the Pecatonica Member of the Platteville Formation, and the hardground at about 746 ft represents the top of the Glenwood Formation.
On the basis of samples collected from one borehole, the ground water at the site is of the calcium-magnesium bicarbonate type. Trichloroethene was detected in one sample at a concentration of 1 ?g/L, and the concentration of antimony in one sample exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Primary Drinking Water Standard. Other water samples contained aluminum and sodium in concentrations that exceeded the USEPA Secondary Drinking Water Standard and the USEPA Drinking Water Equivalent Level, respectively. Samples from various depths contained concentrations of iron, manganese, or dissolved manganese that were near or exceeded the USEPA Secondary Drinking Water Standard.
The cross-borehole radar tomography data show differences in velocity and attenuation among the three major units in the Sinnipee Group. Matrix porosity measured in rock-core samples correlates well with these velocity and attenuation tomograms. The Galena Dolomite has the lowest mean porosity at 2.4 percent (7 samples) and is represented in the tomograms as generally having the lowest attenuation and greatest velocity. Below the Galena Dolomite is a transition to a zone with the greatest attenuation and lowest velocity on the tomograms. The rock core shows this interval to be the shaley dolomite of the Decorah Formation which has a mean porosity of 8.3 percent (2 samples). Below the Decorah Formation, the Platteville Formation has a mean porosity of 3.6 percent (6 samples) and is represented in the tomograms as having velocity and attenuation generally intermediate between the Galena Dolomite and the Decorah Formation. The evaluation of the single-hole directional ground-penetrating radar reflection survey in FL-800 identified 15 reflectors (secondary permeability features). Some of the reflectors do correlate with fractures and partings noted on geophysical logs and rock core; however, many additional fractures and partings identified by the televiewer log and/or core description were not measured by the borehole radar survey. Horizontal or sub-horizontal reflectors (bedding-plane partings) which do correlate with indications of bedding-plane partings on the acoustic televiewer intersect the borehole at about 917 ft, 907 ft, 870 ft, 805 ft, and 797 ft.
The flowmeter profiles indicate that water entering and exiting the boreholes at seven bedding-plane partings accounts for most of the total borehole transmissivity. The flowmeter profiles in all three boreholes show that more than 90 percent of the total borehole transmissivity is provided by bedding-plane partings found at 870 ft and higher stratigraphically within the Galena Dolomite. Static water levels were measured in selected intervals of the three boreholes, and vertical hydraulic gradients were estimated by comparing levels in adjacent intervals. Gradients were found to be almost uniformly downward, ranging from -0.040 to -1.251 ft/ft. On th
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USGS Numbered Series
Lithostratigraphic and Hydrogeologic Characteristics of the Ordovician Sinnipee Group in the Vicinity of Waupun, Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin, 1995-96