Water-level trends and potentiometric surfaces in the Nacatoch Aquifer in northeastern and southwestern Arkansas and in the Tokio Aquifer in southwestern Arkansas, 2014–15
The Nacatoch Sand in northeastern and southwestern Arkansas and the Tokio Formation in southwestern Arkansas are sources of groundwater for agricultural, domestic, industrial, and public use. Water-level altitudes measured in 51 wells completed in the Nacatoch Sand and 42 wells completed in the Tokio Formation during 2014 and 2015 were used to create potentiometric-surface maps of the two areas. Aquifers in the Nacatoch Sand and Tokio Formation are hereafter referred to as the Nacatoch aquifer and the Tokio aquifer, respectively.
Potentiometric surfaces show that groundwater in the Nacatoch aquifer flows southeast toward the Mississippi River in northeastern Arkansas. Groundwater flow direction is towards the south and southeast in Hempstead, Little River, and Nevada Counties in southwestern Arkansas. An apparent cone of depression exists in southern Clark County and likely alters groundwater flow from a regional direction toward the depression.
In southwestern Arkansas, potentiometric surfaces indicate that groundwater flow in the Tokio aquifer is towards the city of Hope. Northwest of Hope, an apparent cone of depression exists. In southwestern Pike, northwestern Nevada, and northeastern Hempstead Counties, an area of artesian flow (water levels are at or above land surface) exists.
Water-level changes in wells were identified using two methods: (1) linear regression analysis of hydrographs from select wells with a minimum of 20 years of water-level data, and (2) a direct comparison between water-level measurements from 2008 and 2014–15 at each well. Of the six hydrographs analyzed in the Nacatoch aquifer, four indicated a decline in water levels. Compared to 2008 measurements, the largest rise in water levels was 35.14 feet (ft) in a well in Clark County, whereas the largest decline was 14.76 ft in a well in Nevada County, both located in southwestern Arkansas.
Of the four hydrographs analyzed in the Tokio aquifer, one indicated a decline in water levels, while the others remained relatively unchanged. Compared to 2008 measurements, the largest rise in water levels was 21.34 ft in Hempstead County, and the largest water-level decline was 39.37 ft in Clark County. Although changes in water levels since 2008 are spatially varied; long-term trends indicate an overall decline in water levels in both aquifers.
Rodgers, K.D., 2017, Water-level trends and potentiometric surfaces in the Nacatoch aquifer in northeastern and southwestern Arkansas and in the Tokio aquifer in southwestern Arkansas, 2014–15: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2017–5090, 30 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20175090.
ISSN: 2328-0328 (online)
Table of Contents
- Study Area
- Nacatoch Aquifer
- Tokio Aquifer
- References Cited
|Publication Subtype||USGS Numbered Series|
|Title||Water-level trends and potentiometric surfaces in the Nacatoch Aquifer in northeastern and southwestern Arkansas and in the Tokio Aquifer in southwestern Arkansas, 2014–15|
|Series title||Scientific Investigations Report|
|Publisher||U.S. Geological Survey|
|Publisher location||Reston, VA|
|Contributing office(s)||Lower Mississippi-Gulf Water Science Center|
|Description||Report: iv, 30 p.; Data Release|
|Other Geospatial||Nacatoch aquifer, Tokio aquifer|
|Online Only (Y/N)||Y|
|Additional Online Files (Y/N)||Y|
|Google Analytic Metrics||Metrics page|