Groundwater discharge to the Mississippi River and groundwater balances for the Interstate 94 Corridor surficial aquifer, Clearwater to Elk River, Minnesota, 2012–14
The Interstate 94 Corridor has been identified as 1 of 16 Minnesota groundwater areas of concern because of its limited available groundwater resources. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, completed six seasonal and annual groundwater balances for parts of the Interstate 94 Corridor surficial aquifer to better understand its long-term (next several decades) sustainability. A high-precision Mississippi River groundwater discharge measurement of 5.23 cubic feet per second per mile was completed at low-flow conditions to better inform these groundwater balances. The recharge calculation methods RISE program and Soil-Water-Balance model were used to inform the groundwater balances. For the RISE-derived recharge estimates, the range was from 3.30 to 11.91 inches per year; for the SWB-derived recharge estimates, the range was from 5.23 to 17.06 inches per year.
Calculated groundwater discharges ranged from 1.45 to 5.06 cubic feet per second per mile, a ratio of 27.7 to 96.4 percent of the measured groundwater discharge. Ratios of groundwater pumping to total recharge ranged from 8.6 to 97.2 percent, with the longer-term groundwater balances ranging from 12.9 to 19 percent. Overall, this study focused on the surficial aquifer system and its interactions with the Mississippi River. During the study period (October 1, 2012, through November 30, 2014), six synoptic measurements, along with continuous groundwater hydrographs, rainfall records, and a compilation of the pertinent irrigation data, establishes the framework for future groundwater modeling efforts.
Smith, E.A., Lorenz, D.L., Kessler, E.W., Berg, A.M., and Sanocki, C.A., 2017, Groundwater discharge to the Mississippi River and groundwater balances for the Interstate 94 Corridor surficial aquifer, Clearwater to Elk River, Minnesota, 2012–14: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2017–5114, 54 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20175114.
ISSN: 2328-0328 (online)
Table of Contents
- Groundwater Discharge to the Mississippi River
- Groundwater Balances for the Interstate 94 Corridor Surficial Aquifer
- Limitations and Assumptions
- References Cited
- Appendix 1. Monthly Water Usage, Calendar Years 2013–14
- Appendix 2. Synoptic Water-Level Measurements, Water Years 2013–14
- Appendix 3. Food and Agriculture Organization Penman-Monteith Reference Evapotranspiration Rates, 2012–14
- Appendix 4. Low-Flow Study, Total Streamflow Measurements
|Publication Subtype||USGS Numbered Series|
|Title||Groundwater discharge to the Mississippi River and groundwater balances for the Interstate 94 Corridor surficial aquifer, Clearwater to Elk River, Minnesota, 2012–14|
|Series title||Scientific Investigations Report|
|Publisher||U.S. Geological Survey|
|Publisher location||Reston, VA|
|Contributing office(s)||Minnesota Water Science Center|
|Description||Report: ix, 54 p.; Appendix Tables; Data Release|
|Online Only (Y/N)||Y|
|Additional Online Files (Y/N)||Y|
|Google Analytics Metrics||Metrics page|