Catalog of Microscopic Organisms of the Everglades Part 2—The Desmids of the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge

Scientific Investigations Report 2019-5074
By: , and 



The Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge (refuge), Boynton Beach, Florida, contains approximately 147,000 acres southeast of Lake Okeechobee. Water quality in the interior portion of the refuge is strongly influenced by rainfall, resulting in slightly acidic waters with low dissolved ions. Desmids, a unique, ornate group of green algae loosely associated with submerged vascular plants, were photo-documented for the first time in samples from the refuge. The canal system surrounding the refuge contains a high level of ions from agricultural runoff, and intrusion of this water into the refuge interior during high canal water levels may have altered some of the desmid population. A transect from the canal to the interior was sampled every 3 months, and the species present were photographed, identified, and catalogued. Approximately 260 unique taxa from 29 genera were encountered. The interior of the refuge had the greatest diversity of desmids; however, the areas of the refuge adjacent to the canals still contained a rich population of desmids. We postulate that the diversity of desmids indicates that the pristine portions of the refuge may be an important refugium for desmids, particularly for those species restricted to the subtropical parts of the United States. This collection of taxa, identified to species with most specimens, will allow a more detailed examination of water quality issues when co-located water quality data are collected.

Suggested Citation

Rosen, B.H., Stahlhut, K.N., and Hall, J.D., 2019, Catalog of microscopic organisms of the Everglades, part 2—The desmids of the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2019–5074, 277 p.,

ISSN: 2328-0328 (online)

ISSN: 2328-031X (print)

Study Area

Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgments
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results and Discussion
  • Closterium Nitzsch ex Ralfs
  • Spinoclosterium Bernard
  • Actinotaenium (Nägeli) Teiling
  • Bambusina Kützing
  • Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs
  • Cosmocladium Brébisson
  • Desmidium C. Agardh ex Ralfs
  • Docidium Brébisson ex Ralfs
  • Euastrum Ehrenberg ex Ralfs
  • Groenbladia Teiling
  • Haplotaenium Bando
  • Hyalotheca Ehrenberg ex Ralfs
  • Micrasterias C. Agardh ex Ralfs
  • Phymatodocis Nordstedt
  • Pleurotaenium Nägeli
  • Sphaerozosma Ralfs
  • Spinocosmarium Prescott & A.M. Scott
  • Spondylosium Brébisson ex Kützing
  • Staurastrum Meyen ex Ralfs
  • Staurodesmus Teiling
  • Teilingia Bourrelly
  • Tetmemorus Ralfs ex Ralfs
  • Triploceras (Bailey ex Ralfs) Bailey
  • Xanthidium Ehrenberg ex Ralfs
  • Gonatozygon De Bary
  • Penium Brébisson ex Ralfs
  • Cylindrocystis Meneghini ex De Bary
  • Spirotaenia Brébisson ex Ralfs
  • Tortitaenia Brook
  • Netrium (Nägeli) Itzigsohn & Rothe
  • References
Publication type Report
Publication Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Title Catalog of microscopic organisms of the Everglades, part 2—The desmids of the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge
Series title Scientific Investigations Report
Series number 2019-5074
DOI 10.3133/sir20195074
Year Published 2019
Language English
Publisher U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location Reston, VA
Contributing office(s) Wetland and Aquatic Research Center, Caribbean-Florida Water Science Center
Description xii, 277 p.
Country United States
State Florida
Other Geospatial Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge
Online Only (Y/N) N
Google Analytic Metrics Metrics page
Additional publication details