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Determination of pesticides and pesticide degradates in filtered water by direct aqueous-injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

Techniques and Methods 5-B11

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ORCID iD , , , and
https://doi.org/10.3133/tm5B11

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Abstract

A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for determination of 229 pesticides compounds (113 pesticides and 116 pesticide degradates) in filtered water samples from stream and groundwater sites. The pesticides represent a broad range of chemical classes and were selected based on criteria such as current-use intensity, probability of occurrence in streams and groundwater, and toxicity to humans or aquatic organisms. More than half of the analytes are pesticide degradates. The method involves direct injection of a 100-microliter (μL) sample onto the LC-MS/MS without any sample preparation other than filtration. Samples are analyzed with two injections, one in electrospray ionization (ESI) positive mode and one in ESI negative mode, using dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) conditions, with two MRM transitions for each analyte. The LC-MS/MS instrument parameters were optimized for highest sensitivity for the most analytes. This report describes the analytical method and presents characteristics of the method validation including bias and variability, detection levels, and holding-time studies.

Mean recoveries of most analytes (223 of 229) were within data-quality objectives of 100±30 percent at spike concentrations above method detection levels (MDLs) in all four matrices. The calculated MDLs ranged from 1 to 103 nanograms per liter (ng/L) for 182 analytes analyzed in the ESI positive mode, and from 2 to 106 ng/L for 42 analytes analyzed in the ESI negative mode. Five analytes had MDLs between 100 and 250 ng/L. The stability studies in reagent water demonstrated that the largest number of the pesticide compounds (227 of 229) were stable after 14 days of storage at 4 degrees Celsius, so these were selected as the practical holding time and storage temperature for routine sample processing. The use of antimicrobial reagent citric acid to adjust the sample pH to about 4 also resulted in lower recoveries of some analytes, so it should not be used as a routine sample preservative.

Suggested Citation

Sandstrom, M.W., Kanagy, L.K., Anderson, C.A., and Kanagy, C.J., 2015, Determination of pesticides and pesticide degradates in filtered water by direct aqueous-injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 5, chap. B11, 54 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/tm5B11.

ISSN: 2328-7055 (online)

Table of Contents

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Analytical Method
  • Results and Discussion of Method Validation Data
  • Problematic Compounds
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • References Cited
  • Glossary
  • Appendix 1. Supporting Figures and Tables

 

 

 

 

 

Additional publication details

Publication type:
Report
Publication Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Title:
Determination of pesticides and pesticide degradates in filtered water by direct aqueous-injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
Series title:
Techniques and Methods
Series number:
5-B11
DOI:
10.3133/tm5B11
Year Published:
2016
Language:
English
Publisher:
U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location:
Reston, VA
Contributing office(s):
Branch of Analytical Serv (NWQL)
Description:
Report: xv, 54 p.; Tables 1-62; 1 Figure; Appendix
Larger Work Type:
Report
Larger Work Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Larger Work Title:
Section B: Methods of the National Water Quality Laboratory in Book 5 Laboratory Analysis
Public Comments:
This report is Chapter 11 of Section B: Methods of the National Water Quality Laboratory in Book 5 Laboratory Analysis
Online Only (Y/N):
Y
Additional Online Files (Y/N):
Y