Use of multi-node wells in the Groundwater-Management Process of MODFLOW-2005 (GWM-2005)

Techniques and Methods 6-A47

Groundwater Resources Program
and ORCID iD



Many groundwater wells are open to multiple aquifers or to multiple intervals within a single aquifer. These types of wells can be represented in numerical simulations of groundwater flow by use of the Multi-Node Well (MNW) Packages developed for the U.S. Geological Survey’s MODFLOW model. However, previous versions of the Groundwater-Management (GWM) Process for MODFLOW did not allow the use of multi-node wells in groundwater-management formulations. This report describes modifications to the MODFLOW–2005 version of the GWM Process (GWM–2005) to provide for such use with the MNW2 Package. Multi-node wells can be incorporated into a management formulation as flow-rate decision variables for which optimal withdrawal or injection rates will be determined as part of the GWM–2005 solution process. In addition, the heads within multi-node wells can be used as head-type state variables, and, in that capacity, be included in the objective function or constraint set of a management formulation. Simple head bounds also can be defined to constrain water levels at multi-node wells. The report provides instructions for including multi-node wells in the GWM–2005 data-input files and a sample problem that demonstrates use of multi-node wells in a typical groundwater-management problem.

Additional publication details

Publication type:
Publication Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Use of multi-node wells in the Groundwater-Management Process of MODFLOW-2005 (GWM-2005)
Series title:
Techniques and Methods
Series number:
Year Published:
U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location:
Reston, VA
Contributing office(s):
Office of Groundwater
vi, 26 p.
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