SUTRA, a Model for Saturated-Unsaturated, Variable-Density Groundwater Flow with Solute or Energy Transport—Documentation of Generalized Boundary Conditions, a Modified Implementation of Specified Pressures and Concentrations or Temperatures, and the Lake Capability

Techniques and Methods 6-A52
Prepared in cooperation with the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program
By:  and 

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Abstract

Version 3.0 of the SUTRA groundwater modeling program offers three new capabilities: generalized boundary conditions, a modified implementation of specified pressures and concentrations or temperatures, and lakes. Two new types of “generalized” boundary conditions facilitate simulation of a wide range of hydrologic processes that interact with the groundwater model, such as rivers, drains, and evapotranspiration. For generalized-flow boundary conditions, gain (inflow) or loss (outflow) of fluid mass varies linearly with pressure, subject to optional upper and lower limits on flow and (or) pressure. For generalized-transport boundary conditions, gain or loss of solute mass or energy varies linearly with concentration or temperature, respectively. Two of the original types of SUTRA boundary conditions—specified-pressure and specified-concentration or temperature—have been modified such that user-specified, conductance-like factors (known as GNUP and GNUU in previous versions of SUTRA) are no longer required. The new lake capability works with all types of SUTRA boundary conditions, including the new generalized boundary conditions, to enable simulation of the interaction of groundwater flow and transport with lake water “ponded” on the surface of a three-dimensional model. SUTRA uses the topography of the top surface of the model, or, optionally, user-specified lake-bottom elevations, to identify potential lakes automatically. Increases and decreases in lake stage can cause lakes to coalesce and divide, respectively. The lake capability may be used with saturated or unsaturated flow and solute or energy transport.

Suggested Citation

Provost, A.M., and Voss, C.I., 2019, SUTRA, a model for saturated-unsaturated, variable-density groundwater flow with solute or energy transport—Documentation of generalized boundary conditions, a modified implementation of specified pressures and concentrations or temperatures, and the lake capability: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 6, chap. A52, 62 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/tm6A52.

ISSN: 2328-7055 (online)

Table of Contents

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Chapter 1. Generalized Boundary Conditions
  • Chapter 2. Modified Implementation of Specified Pressures and Concentrations or Temperatures
  • Chapter 3. Lake Capability
  • Acknowledgments
  • References Cited
  • Appendix 1. List of Symbols
  • Appendix 2. Flow Across a Conductive Layer
  • Appendix 3. Input Data List

Additional publication details

Publication type Report
Publication Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Title SUTRA, a model for saturated-unsaturated, variable-density groundwater flow with solute or energy transport—Documentation of generalized boundary conditions, a modified implementation of specified pressures and concentrations or temperatures, and the lake capability
Series title Techniques and Methods
Series number 6-A52
DOI 10.3133/tm6A52
Year Published 2019
Language English
Publisher U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location Reston, VA
Contributing office(s) WMA - Earth System Processes Division, WMA - Integrated Modeling and Prediction Division
Description viii, 62 p.
Larger Work Type Report
Larger Work Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Larger Work Title Section A: Groundwater in Book 6 Modeling Techniques
Public Comments This report is Chapter 52 of Section A: Groundwater in Book 6 Modeling Techniques
Online Only (Y/N) Y