Submersible pressure transducers, developed in the early 1960s, have made the collection of water-level and pressure data much more convenient than former methods. Submersible pressure transducers, when combined with electronic data recorders have made it possible to collect continuous or nearly continuous water-level or pressure data from wells, piezometers, soil-moisture tensiometers, and surface water gages. These more frequent measurements have led to an improved understanding of the hydraulic processes in streams, soils, and aquifers.
This manual describes the operational theory behind submersible pressure transducers and provides information about their use in hydrologic investigations conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey.
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USGS Numbered Series
Use of submersible pressure transducers in water-resources investigations