Chapter A6. Section 6.1. Temperature

Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations 09-A6.1



Accurate temperature measurements are required for accurate determinations of important environmental parameters such as pH, specific electrical conductance, and dissolved oxygen, and to the determination of chemical reaction rates and equilibria, biological activity, and physical fluid properties. This section of the National Field Manual (NFM) describes U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) guidance and protocols for measurement of temperature in air, ground water, and surface water and calibration of the equipment used. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters will be announced on the USGS Home Page on the World Wide Web under 'New Publications of the U.S. Geological Survey.'

Suggested Citation

Wilde, F.D., Temperature, 2006: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 9, chap. 6.1,

Table of Contents

  • Temperatures
  • Selected References
  • Acknowledgments

Additional publication details

Publication type Report
Publication Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Title Chapter A6. Section 6.1. Temperature
Series title Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations
Series number 09-A6.1
DOI 10.3133/twri09A6.1
Edition Version 2
Year Published 2006
Language English
Publisher U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location Reston, VA
Contributing office(s) U.S. Geological Survey
Description 22 p.
Larger Work Type Report
Larger Work Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Larger Work Title National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Book 9
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