Mean annual streamflow ( Q a ), defined as the mean of the series of annual mean streamflow values, was determined for selected rural stream sites in Kentucky. Streamflow data for the available period of record through the 1999 water year (October 1, 1998-September 30, 1999) at 235 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations with at least 5 years of record located in and adjacent to Kentucky were used in the analysis. Record-extension procedures were applied for selected gaging stations to reduce time-sampling error and, thus, improve estimates of the long-term Q a .
Techniques to estimate the Q a at ungaged stream sites in Kentucky were developed. One-, two-, and three-variable regression equations that included total drainage area, station latitude minus 36 degrees, and mean basin elevation as explanatory variables were developed by use of ordinary- and generalized-least-squares regression. The three-variable regression equation has an approximate average standard error of prediction of 13.7 percent. The one- and two-variable equations exhibit geographical biases, and the indicated standard errors of prediction may poorly estimate the true prediction errors, depending upon the location in the State. Therefore, the three-variable equation should be used for estimating mean annual streamflow of rural streams in Kentucky whenever possible.