A Stream-Gaging Network Analysis for the 7-Day, 10-Year Annual Low Flow in New Hampshire Streams

Water-Resources Investigations Report 2003-4023

In cooperation with the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services



The 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) low-flow-frequency statistic is a widely used measure of surface-water availability in New Hampshire. Regression equations and basin-characteristic digital data sets were developed to help water-resource managers determine surface-water resources during periods of low flow in New Hampshire streams. These regression equations and data sets were developed to estimate streamflow statistics for the annual and seasonal low-flow-frequency, and period-of-record and seasonal period-of-record flow durations. generalized-least-squares (GLS) regression methods were used to develop the annual 7Q10 low-flow-frequency regression equation from 60 continuous-record stream-gaging stations in New Hampshire and in neighboring States. In the regression equation, the dependent variables were the annual 7Q10 flows at the 60 stream-gaging stations. The independent (or predictor) variables were objectively selected characteristics of the drainage basins that contribute flow to those stations. In contrast to ordinary-least-squares (OLS) regression analysis, GLS-developed estimating equations account for differences in length of record and spatial correlations among the flow-frequency statistics at the various stations.

A total of 93 measurable drainage-basin characteristics were candidate independent variables. On the basis of several statistical parameters that were used to evaluate which combination of basin characteristics contribute the most to the predictive power of the equations, three drainage-basin characteristics were determined to be statistically significant predictors of the annual 7Q10: (1) total drainage area, (2) mean summer stream-gaging station precipitation from 1961 to 90, and (3) average mean annual basinwide temperature from 1961 to 1990.

To evaluate the effectiveness of the stream-gaging network in providing regional streamflow data for the annual 7Q10, the computer program GLSNET (generalized-least-squares NETwork) was used to analyze the network by application of GLS regression between streamflow and the climatic and basin characteristics of the drainage basin upstream from each stream-gaging station. Improvement to the predictive ability of the regression equations developed for the network analyses is measured by the reduction in the average sampling-error variance, and can be achieved by collecting additional streamflow data at existing stations. The predictive ability of the regression equations is enhanced even further with the addition of new stations to the network. Continued data collection at unregulated stream-gaging stations with less than 14 years of record resulted in the greatest cost-weighted reduction to the average sampling-error variance of the annual 7Q10 regional regression equation. The addition of new stations in basins with underrepresented values for the independent variables of the total drainage area, average mean annual basinwide temperature, or mean summer stream-gaging station precipitation in the annual 7Q10 regression equation yielded a much greater cost-weighted reduction to the average sampling-error variance than when more data were collected at existing unregulated stations. To maximize the regional information obtained from the stream-gaging network for the annual 7Q10, ranking of the streamflow data can be used to determine whether an active station should be continued or if a new or discontinued station should be activated for streamflow data collection. Thus, this network analysis can help determine the costs and benefits of continuing the operation of a particular station or activating a new station at another location to predict the 7Q10 at ungaged stream reaches. The decision to discontinue an existing station or activate a new station, however, must also consider its contribution to other water-resource analyses such as flood management, water quality, or trends in land use or climatic change.

Suggested Citation

Flynn, R.H., 2003, A stream-gaging network analysis for the 7-day, 10-year annual low flow in New Hampshire streams: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 2003–4023, 39p.,

Table of Contents

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Method For Network Analysis of Annual 7-Day, 10-Year Low Flow
  • Network Analysis Scenarios
  • Results of the Stream-gaging Network Analysis
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • Selected References
  • Appendix 1. Basin Characteristics Tested for Significance in the Regression Analysis

Additional publication details

Publication type:
Publication Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
A Stream-Gaging Network Analysis for the 7-Day, 10-Year Annual Low Flow in New Hampshire Streams
Series title:
Water-Resources Investigations Report
Series number:
Online only
Year Published:
U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location:
Reston, VA
39 p.
Online Only (Y/N):
Additional Online Files (Y/N):