The U.S. Geological Survey developed watershed models (Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN) to simulate streamflow and estimate streamflow constituent loads from five basins that compose the San Antonio River watershed in Bexar County, Texas. Rainfall and streamflow data collected during 1997?2001 were used to calibrate and test the model. The model was configured so that runoff from various land uses and discharges from other sources (such as wastewater recycling facilities) could be accounted for to indicate sources of streamflow. Simulated streamflow volumes were used with land-use-specific, water-quality data to compute streamflow loads of selected constituents from the various streamflow sources.
Model simulations for 1997?2001 indicate that inflow from the upper Medina River (originating outside Bexar County) represents about 22 percent of total streamflow. Recycled wastewater discharges account for about 20 percent and base flow (ground-water inflow to streams) about 18 percent. Storm runoff from various land uses represents about 33 percent.
Estimates of sources of streamflow constituent loads indicate recycled wastewater as the largest source of dissolved solids and nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen (about 38 and 66 percent, respectively, of the total loads) during 1997?2001. Stormwater runoff from urban land produced about 49 percent of the 1997?2001 total suspended solids load. Stormwater runoff from residential and commercial land (about 23 percent of the land area) produced about 70 percent of the total lead streamflow load during 1997?2001.
Additional publication details
USGS Numbered Series
Simulation of streamflow and estimation of streamflow constituent loads in the San Antonio River watershed, Bexar County, Texas, 1997-2001