Field tests were performed on two types of diffusion samplers to collect representative samples of inorganic constituents from ground water in wells and at an arsenic-contaminated ground-water-discharge zone beneath a stream. Nylon-screen samplers and dialysis samplers were tested for the collection of arsenic, calcium, chloride, iron, manganese, sulfate, and dissolved oxygen. The investigations were conducted at the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant (NIROP), Fridley, Minnesota, and at the Naval Air Station Fort Worth Joint Reserve Base (NAS Fort Worth JRB), Texas.
Data indicate that, in general, nylon-screen and dialysis diffusion samplers are capable of obtaining concentrations of inorganic solutes in ground water that correspond to concentrations obtained by low-flow sampling. Diffusion samplers offer a potentially time-saving approach to well sampling. Particular care must be taken, however, when sampling for iron and other metals, because of the potential for iron precipitation by oxygenation and when dealing with chemically stratified sampling intervals. Simple nylon-screen jar samplers buried beneath creekbed sediment appear to be effective tools for locating discharge zones of arsenic contaminated ground water.
Although the LDPE samplers have proven to be inexpensive and simple to use in wells, they are limited by their inability to provide a representative sample of ionic solutes. The success of nylon-screen samplers in sediment studies suggests that these simple samplers may be useful for collecting water samples for inorganic constituents in wells. Results using dialysis bags deployed in wells suggest that these types of samplers have the potential to provide a representative sample of both VOCs and ionic solutes from ground water (Kaplan and others, 1991; Theodore A. Ehlke, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2001).
The purpose of this report is to provide results of field tests investigating the potential to use diffusion samplers to collect representative samples of inorganic constituents from ground water in wells and at an arsenic-contaminated ground-water-discharge zone beneath a stream. The investigations were performed at NIROP, Fridley, Minn. (fig. 1) and at NAS Fort Worth JRB, Texas (fig. 2). Two types of samplers were tested. One type was a nylon-screen sampler, which consisted of a 30-mL jar filled with deionized water, with its opening covered by a nylon screen. The second type was a dialysis sampler that consisted of a tube of dialysis membrane filled with deionized water. The nylon-screen samplers were deployed in wells at NIROP Fridley and NAS Fort Worth JRB and beneath the ground-water/surface water interface of a stream at NAS Fort Worth JRB. The dialysis samplers were deployed only in wells at NAS Fort Worth JRB.
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Field tests of diffusion samplers for inorganic constituents in wells and at a ground-water discharge zone