Clay County is a rapidly growing area in northeastern Florida. Surface water largely is undeveloped except for recreational use. Black Creek is the largest fresh-water stream in the country and has an average discharge of about 515 cubic feet per second. However, excessive color, iron concentration, hardness, and pH often make the water objectionable for many uses. Water from the lakes and streams in the Etonia Creek basin in southwestern Clay County generally is of good chemical quality.
Ground water occurs in the county in a water-table aquifer, secondary artesian aquifers, and the Floridan aquifer. Large withdrawals of water from the Floridan aquifer since the 1940's, especially in nearby metropolitan Jacksonville, have caused a decline of the potentiometric surface of up to 30 feet in the northeast corner of Clay County to less than 5 feet in the western part. The rate of decline in recent years at Orange Park has been about 0.7 of a foot per year. Ground water in the county generally is of good chemical quality and is suitable for most uses. The quality has not changes noticeably in the past several years since records have been kept.
Additional publication details
|Publication Subtype||USGS Numbered Series|
|Title||Surface-water and ground-water features, Clay County, Florida|
|Series title||Water-Resources Investigations Report|
|Publisher||U.S. Geological Survey|
|Description||viii, 59 p.|
|Google Analytic Metrics||Metrics page|