Surface-water and ground-water quality, streamflow, and data on ground-water levels in the upper Great Egg Harbor River basin in the vicinity of the Winslow Crossing residential development in Winslow Township are evaluated. The data include continuous streamflow at four sites, monthly stream water quality at seven sites, ground-water levels and periodic ground-water quality in four wells from 1972 through 1978.
Pumpage from the Cohansey Sand in the study area was lower than anticipated because of a slowdown in construction. The average pumpage of 0.48 million gallons per day during 1978 had little effect on ground-water levels.
Dissolved-solids concentrations were lower in a well upgradient from the urbanized area. Elevated levels of dissolved solids, specific conductance, chloride, nitrate, and phosphorus were found in the shallow ground water in the vicinity of the Winslow wastewater treatment plant because of effluent infiltration ponds. Nitrate was greatly reduced in October 1974 by a change in the treatment process, which increased denitrification. Phosphorus concentrations in the ground water remained elevated, however.
Water from the most urbanized drainage basin was a magnesium bicarbonate type, while the less developed basins had sodium chloride sulfate type waters. Water from the two developed basins had higher median pH (7.1) compared with that of the other basins (5.6-6.3).
Winslow Crossing?s development had only a slight effect on the quality of water in Great Egg Harbor River. The river receives point and non-point discharges upstream from Winslow Crossing, and the quality of the water generally improves as the river flows downstream.
Streamflow and rainfall were slightly above normal. Unit hydrograph analysis of one basin showed an 80 percent increase in the peak discharge of a 60-minute unit hydrograph (from approximately 150 to 270 cubic feet per second) after the development of 14 percent of the basin. Installation of a stormwater detention basin reduced the peak discharge to 220 ft3/s. Sediment discharge from this basin averaged 0.24 tons/d/mi2 during construction but decreased to the preconstruction level of 0.06 tons/d/mi2 after the completion of construction and the installation of the detention
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Impact of suburban residential development on water resources in the area of Winslow Township, Camden County, New Jersey