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Hydrogeologic and water-quality characteristics of the Upper Carbonate aquifer, Southeast Minnesota

Water-Resources Investigations Report 84-4150

Prepared in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
By:
and

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Abstract

The Upper Carbonate aquifer is part of a sequence of sedimentary bedrock units deposited in Paleozoic seas that occupied a depression known as the Hollandale embayment. The aquifer is comprised of four formations, which, in ascending order, are the Galena Dolomite, Dubuque Formation, Maquoketa Shale, and Cedar Valley Limestone. Total thickness of the aquifer is as much as 650 feet. Yields from wells in the aquifer range from about 100 to 500 gallons per minute. Water flows mostly through fractures and solution channels toward the periphery of the aquifer and, locally, toward river and bedrock valleys.

The quality of water in the Upper Carbonate aquifer is suitable for most uses. However, the water is susceptible to contamination in karst areas because sinkholes and disappearing streams provide direct passageways for entry of contaminants into the aquifer. Calcium magnesium bicarbonate type waters are most common. Concentrations of dissolved solids and some major ions, specifically magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, and sulfate, are generally highest in the southwestern part of the study area.

Study Area

Additional publication details

Publication type:
Report
Publication Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Title:
Hydrogeologic and water-quality characteristics of the Upper Carbonate aquifer, Southeast Minnesota
Series title:
Water-Resources Investigations Report
Series number:
84-4150
Year Published:
1983
Language:
English
Publisher:
U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location:
Reston, VA
Contributing office(s):
Minnesota Water Science Center
Description:
2 Plates: 40.33 x 34.85 inches and 40.28 x 34.87 inches
Country:
United States
State:
Minnesota
Other Geospatial:
Upper Carbonate aquifer
Online Only (Y/N):
N
Additional Online Files (Y/N):
N