A study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Village of Richwood, Ohio, to determine directions of ground-water flow, ground-water-level fluctuations, and water quality in the northeastern part of Union County.
The topography of the study area generally is featureless, and the land surfaces slopes gently eastward from 985 to 925 feet above sea level. Glacial deposits up to 48 feet thick cover the carbonate-bedrock aquifer. Three municipal wells and an adjoining abandoned landfill are located in an area previously excavated for clay deposits. An agricultural supply company is adjacent to the well field.
Ground water flows from west to east with local variation to the northeast and southeast because of the influence of Fulton Creek. Richwood Lake occupies an abandoned sand-and-gravel quarry. Water-level fluctuations indicate that the and gravel deposits beneath the lake may be hydraulically connected to the bedrock aquifer.
Water-quality data collected from 14 wells and Richwood Lake indicate that a hard to very hard calcium bicarbonate type water is characteristic of the study area. Dissolved solids ranged from 200 to 720 mg/L (Milligrams per liter) throughout the study area.
Potassium ranged from 1.3 to 15 mg/L, with a median concentration of 2.0 mg/L. Concentration of 10 and 15 mg/L at one municipal well were five to eight times greater than the median concentration.
Total organic carbon, ammonia, and organic nitrogen were present at every site. Concentrations of ammonia above 1 mg/L as nitrogen were found in water from two municipal wells and one domestic well. Total organic carbon was detected at a municipal well, a landfill well, and a domestic well at concentrations above 5 mg/L.
Ground-water quality is similar throughout the study area except in the vicinity of the municipal well field, where water from one well had elevated concentrations of ammonia, dissolved manganese, dissolved chloride, dissolved, sodium, and total organic carbon.
Additional publication details
USGS Numbered Series
Ground-water flow and water quality in northeastern Union County, Ohio