Northern Thurston County is underlain by as much as 1,000 feet of unconsolidated deposits of Pleistocene Age, that are of both glacial and nonglacial origin. Interpretation of 17 geelogic sections led to the delineation of 7 major geohydrologic units, 3 of which constitute aquifers in the area. Precipi- tation ranges from about 35 to 65 inches per year across the study area. Estimates of gross recharge from precipitation indicate that the ground-water system of the area receives about 25 inches per year. The net recharge to the system (recharge from precipitation minus withdrawals from wells) is the equivalent of about 23 inches per year. Ground water generally moves toward marine bodiesand to major surface drainage channels. Leakage from Lake St. Clair, which lies in a compound kettle within permeable glacial outwash, is almost 24 feet per year per unit area. Leakage from the lake may make up part of the water that discharges at McAllister Springs, north of the lake. Of the few water-quality problems encountered, the most widespread is seawater intrusion, which is caused by the activities of man. Most water-quality problems in the study area, however, are due to natural causes. Iron concentrations axe as large as 21,000 micrograms per liter, manganese concentrations are as large as 3,400 micrograms per liter, and connate seawater is present in ground water in the southern pan of the study area.
Additional publication details
USGS Numbered Series
Hydrology and quality of ground water in northern Thurston County, Washington
Water-Resources Investigations Report
U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey ;
Branch of Information Services [distributor],
v, 230 p. :ill., maps (some col.) ;28 cm. +6 folded leaves of plates in envelope. [PGS - 188 p.]