This report describes techniques for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods for the island of Oahu. The log-Pearson Type III distribution and methodology recommended by the Interagency Committee on Water Data was used to determine the magnitude and frequency of floods at 79 gaging stations that had 11 to 72 years of record. Multiple regression analysis was used to construct regression equations to transfer the magnitude and frequency information from gaged sites to ungaged sites. Oahu was divided into three hydrologic regions to define relations between peak discharge and drainage-basin and climatic characteristics. Regression equations are provided to estimate the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year peak discharges at ungaged sites. Significant basin and climatic characteristics included in the regression equations are drainage area, median annual rainfall, and the 2-year, 24-hour rainfall intensity. Drainage areas for sites used in this study ranged from 0.03 to 45.7 square miles. Standard error of prediction for the regression equations ranged from 34 to 62 percent.
Peak-discharge data collected through water year 1988, geographic information system (GIS) technology, and generalized least-squares regression were used in the analyses. The use of GIS seems to be a more flexible and consistent means of defining and calculating basin and climatic characteristics than using manual methods. Standard errors of estimate for the regression equations in this report are an average of 8 percent less than those published in previous studies.
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USGS Numbered Series
Estimation of Magnitude and Frequency of Floods for Streams on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii