Data were collected on physical properties and chemistry of 4 surface water, l4 ground water, and 4 bottom sediment sites in the Rillito Creek basin where artificial recharge of surface runoff is being considered. Concentrations of suspended sediment in streams generally increased with increases in streamflow and were higher during the summer. The surface water is a calcium and bicarbonate type, and the ground water is calcium sodium and bicarbonate type. Total trace ek=nents in surface water that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary maximum contaminant levels for drinking-water standards were barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury and nickel. Most unfiltered samples for suspended gross alpha as uranium, and unadjusted gross alpha plus gross beta in surface water exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the State of Arizona drinking-water standards. Comparisons of trace- element concentrations in bottom sediment with those in soils of the western conterminous United States generally indicate similar concentrations for most of the trace elements, with the exceptions of scandium and tin. The maximum concentration of total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen in three ground- samples and total lead in one ground-water sample exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary maximum contaminant levels for drinking- water standards, respectively. Seven organochlorine pesticides were detected in surface-water samples and nine in bottom-sediment samples. Three priority pollutants were detected in surface water, two were detected in ground water, and eleven were detected in bottom sediment. Low concentrations of oil and grease were detected in surface-water and bottom- sediment samples.