This report describes the results of a study to estimate characteristics of base flow and sustained ground-water discharge at five streamflow-gaging stations on the Mad River in Ohio. The five streamflow-gaging stations are located at Zanesfield, near Urbana, at St. Paris Pike (at Eagle City), near Springfield, and near Dayton.
The median of the annual-mean base flows, determined by means of hydrograph separation, ranged from 0.64 (ft3/s)/mi2 (cubic feet per second per square mile) at Zanesfield to 0.74 (ft3/s)/mi2 at St. Paris Pike. The median percentage of annual total streamflow attributed to base flow ranged from 61.8 percent at Zanesfield to 76.1 percent near Urbana.
Estimates of an upper limit (or threshold) at which base flows can be considered to be composed predominately of sustained ground-water discharge were made by constructing and analyzing base- flow-duration curves. The sustained ground-water discharges (base flows less than or equal to the estimated sustained ground-water-discharge thresholds) are assumed to originate from ground-water- flow systems that are minimally affected by seasonal climatic changes. The median sustained ground- water discharge ranged from 0.11 (ft3/s)/mi2 at Zanesfield to 0.26 (ft3/s)/mi2 at St. Paris Pike (at Eagle City) and near Springfield. The median sustained ground-water discharge, expressed as a percentage of the median annual-mean base flow, ranged from 17.2 percent at Zanesfield to 38.6 percent near Springfield.