Four geophysical techniques were used to determine bedrock-fracture orientation and other site characteristics that can be used to determine ground-water movement and contaminant transport at a fractured crystalline bedrock site in Millville and Uxbridge, Massachusetts. Azimuthal seismic- refraction and azimuthal square-array direct-current resistivity surveys were conducted at three sites. Borehole-radar surveys were conducted in a cluster of three wells. Ground-penetrating radar surveys were conducted along roads in the study area. Azimuthal seismic-refraction data indicated a primary fracture strike between 56 and 101 degrees at three sites. Graphical and analytical analysis of azimuthal square-array resistivity data indicated a primary fracture strike from 45 to 90 degrees at three sites. Directional borehole-radar data from three wells indicated 46 fractures or fracture zones located as far as 147 feet from the surveyed wells. Patterns of low radar-wave velocity and high radar- wave attenuation from cross-hole radar surveys of two well pairs were interpreted as a planar fracture zone that strikes 297 degrees and dips 55 degrees south. Ground-penetrating radar surveys with 100-MHz antennas penetrated as much as 150 feet of bedrock where the bedrock surface was at or near land surface. Horizontal and subhorizontal fractures were observed on the ground-penetrating radar records at numerous locations. Correlation of data sets indicates good agreement and indicates primary high- angle fracturing striking east-northeast. Secondary bedrock porosity and average fracture aperture determined from square-array resistivity data averaged 0.0044 and 0.0071 foot. Depths to bedrock observed on the ground-penetrating radar records were 0 to 20 feet below land surface along most of the area surveyed. A bedrock depth from 45 to 50 feet below land surface was observed along one section of Conestoga Drive.
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USGS Numbered Series
Use of surface and borehole geophysical surveys to determine fracture orientation and other site characteristics in crystalline bedrock terrain, Millville and Uxbridge, Massachusetts
Water-Resources Investigations Report
U.S. Geological Survey ;
Earth Science Information Center, Open-File Reports Section [distributor],